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Evaluation and Treatment
  1. Failed back syndrome
  2. Lumbar Spine Syndromes - Evaluation and Treatment | Gunnar B.J. Andersson | Springer
  3. Read Book Lumbar Spine Syndromes: Evaluation and Treatment ebook textbooks
  4. Lumbar Spine Syndromes

In minor derangement, prone lying may reduce the derangement without any other procedures being required.

Although this position may be painful, the pain does not indicate the procedure is undesirable if it is felt centrally. In major derangement, for example patients with lumbar kyfosis, it is possible that the patients cannot tolerate the prone position unless they are lying over a few pillows.

In case of dysfunction the loss of extension may be enough to prevent lying prone because the soft tissue shortening has reduced the range of motion and extension stress produces pain. The patient lies on his abdomen while the hands are placed near the shoulders. The hands are placed with the palms down.

Failed back syndrome

Now the patient makes a press-up movement with straight arms. The Pelvis stays near the table while the patient presses the thorax upwards. After this movement the patient returns to his starting position and repeats this exercise 10 times. The first couple of exercises have to be done easily, but after a few times the movement has to be made to the maximum extension range that is possible. The aim of this exercise is to make the lumbar spine relax after the maximum extension, in the relaxation phase. The maximum degree of extension is obtained with this exercise.

It is possible that there occurs central low back pain described as a strain pain, but it will gradually wear off. An intermittent extension stress is influencing the contents and surrounding structures of the lumbar segments, having a pumping as well as a stretching effect. This procedure is the most important and effective in the treatment of derangement as well as extension dysfunction.


The patient stands up straight with his feet apart, to remain a stable position. The hands are placed on the lumbar region, in the area of the spina iliaca posterior superior. His hands fixate the pelvis while the patient leans backwards.

Do you know what goes into a Mackenzie method physical therapy evaluation of the lumbar spine?

The patient has to lean backwards as far as possible. This exercise has to be repeated ten times.

Lumbar Spine Syndromes - Evaluation and Treatment | Gunnar B.J. Andersson | Springer

It has similar effects on derangement and dysfunction as extension in lying. In derangement, extension in standing is designed to reduce accumulation of nuclear material in the posterior compartment of the intervertebral joint. The procedure is important in the prevention of the onset of low back pain during or after prolonged sitting and is very effective when performed before pain is actually felt.

The patient lies in a prone position on the treatment table with his arms parallel with the trunk and the head turned to one side.

The therapist stands next to the patient and places the heels of the hands on the lumbar region. One will fixate the processus transverses of the vertebra on top of the vertebra you want to rotate. The urological abnormalities potentially associated with caudal regression syndrome can be significant.

Damage to the nerves can also cause abnormalities of the lower limbs. Such abnormalities may include flexion contractures of the knee and hip. A contracture is a condition in which a joint becomes permanently fixed in a bent flexed or straightened extended position, completely or partially restricting the movement of the affected joint. Affected infants may also have reduced muscle mass in the legs, clubfeet or webbed skin on the back of the knees popliteal ptergyium.

When present, the severity of lower limb abnormalities can vary. Some individuals will walk unassisted; others may need an assistance device such as crutches, braces, walkers or, in severe cases, a wheelchair. Infants with caudal regression syndrome may have a wide variety of additional physical findings including kidney abnormalities, abnormalities of the upper vertebrae, facial anomalies such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and a condition in which a thin covering blocking the anal opening or the passage that normally connects the anus and lowest part of the large intestine rectum fails to develop, which is known as anal atresia or imperforate anus.

Kidney abnormalities that occur in caudal regression syndrome may include the absence of one kidney renal agenesis. In some cases, affected infants may have kidneys that are not located in their normal position renal ectopia or fusion of the tubes that force urine from the kidneys to the bladder fused ureters. Kidney abnormalities can cause urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, or the abnormal backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureters vesicoureteral reflux. Some individuals with caudal regression syndrome may have a meningomyelocele, a condition in which the membranes that cover the spine and, in some cases, the spinal cord itself protrude through a defect in the spinal canal.

Congenital heart defects and respiratory complications can also be associated with caudal regression syndrome. Researchers believe that both environmental and genetic factors may play a role in the development of the disorder. Most cases appear to occur randomly for no apparent reason sporadically , which suggests environmental factors or a new mutation. Most likely, caudal regression syndrome is multifactorial, which means that several different factors may play a causative role.

Read Book Lumbar Spine Syndromes: Evaluation and Treatment ebook textbooks

In addition, different genetic factors may contribute to the disorder in different people genetic heterogeneity. One risk factor that has been identified for caudal regression syndrome is maternal diabetes. Caudal regression syndrome occurs with greater frequency in women with diabetes than in the general population. Approximately 16 percent of affected individuals of caudal regression syndrome have occurred in children of women with diabetes.

The exact reason why women with diabetes are at a greater risk for having a child with caudal regression syndrome is not fully understood. The environmental factors that play a role in the development of caudal regression syndrome are unknown, although numerous different potential factors have been suggested including alcohol, retinoic acid, lack of oxygen hypoxia and amino acid imbalances.

More research is necessary to determine what environmental factors play a role in the development of caudal regression syndrome. Some infants with caudal regression syndrome may have a genetic predisposition to developing the disorder. In some cases, caudal regression syndrome may be associated with mutations of the VANGL1 gene located on the short arm p of chromosome 1 1p The exact role this gene mutation plays in the development of caudal regression syndrome is unknown. This mutation is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

Genetic diseases are determined by the combination of genes for a particular trait that are on the chromosomes received from the father and the mother. Dominant genetic disorders occur when only a single copy of an abnormal gene is necessary for the appearance of the disease.

Lumbar Spine Syndromes

The abnormal gene can be inherited from either parent, or can be the result of a new mutation gene change in the affected individual. The risk of passing the abnormal gene from affected parent to offspring is 50 percent for each pregnancy regardless of the sex of the resulting child.

This disorder is characterized by partial sacral agenesis, a presacral mass, and anorectal malformations. For more information on this disorder, see the Related Disorders section below. Researchers believe that the environmental or genetic factors associated with caudal regression syndrome have a teratogenic effect on the developing fetus.

A teratogen is any substance that can disrupt the development of an embryo or fetus. On theory suggests that environmental or genetic factors impair or block blood flow to the caudal region of the developing fetus vascular disruption. Caudal regression syndrome affects males and females in equal numbers. The incidence of the disorder has been estimated to be 1 in 5 per , live births. The disorder occurs with greater frequency among women with diabetes. Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of caudal regression syndrome.

Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis. Sirenomelia, which is also known as mermaid syndrome, is a rare congenital disorder characterized by anomalies of the lower spine and the lower limbs. The disorder is characterized by partial or complete fusion of the legs. Additional malformations may also occur including genitourinary abnormalities, gastrointestinal abnormalities, anomalies of the lumbar sacral spine and pelvis and absence or underdeveloped agenesis of one or both kidneys.

Affected infants may not have one foot, no feet or both feet, which may rotated externally. The tailbone is usually absent and the sacrum is partially or completely absent as well. Additional conditions may occur with sirenomelia including anal atresia, spina bifida, and heart cardiac malformations. Most cases of sirenomelia occur randomly for no apparent reason sporadically.